Friday, May 22, 2020

John Winthrop s The Puritan - 1610 Words

In the Puritan religion, one cannot love anything more than one loves God. In the case of John Winthrop, this edict became an issue. He did not want to abandon the Church of England as the separatists did, a decision which eventually led to the pilgrims starting their own new church. Winthrop wanted to purify the church; however, the government in England made this particularly hard and eventually this is what led to Winthrop leaving England for the New World to solve the Puritan Dilemma. The Puritan Dilemma was a figurative battle between the Church of England and the Puritan religion. It was also a real threat with opposing religions that would come and threaten the Puritans way of life. John Winthrop recognized these problems and sought to remedy them. In the early 1600’s, John Winthrop grew up in a very wealthy family. He attended college at 15 and at 17 he was married. Winthrop loved his wife very much but at times he thought maybe too much (he remarried 3 times because his first 2 wives passed away). As a Puritan, Winthrop dedicated his life to God, but as he got older, England’s government made it harder and harder to be a Puritan, due to the fact that the king said outright he hated Puritans. Winthrop went on to study law and eventually became a common attorney in the court of wards; though Winthrop was happy to get this job, it kept him away from his family. After a short while in this position, Winthrop began to feel less and less important, as Puritans were theShow MoreRelatedA Model Of Christian Charity1525 Words   |  7 PagesEnglish 473 March 4, 2015 â€Å"TITLE† A Model of Christian Charity is a sermon, or more of a simple speech delivered by Winthrop in order to inspire his fellow Puritans who sailed in order to settle in the New England. This speech was given in order to keep them committed to their new settlement. It was most probably not intended to be a timeless piece of literature that it became later on. John Winthrop’s â€Å"A Model of Christian Charity† is also known as â€Å"A City on a Hill†. It often illustrates the AmericanRead MoreJohn Winthrop : Puritan Fanatic Or Religious Realist1329 Words   |  6 PagesEd Reed, Section 06 ENGL 1001W John Winthrop: Puritan Fanatic or Religious Realist Attempts at English colonization of what would later become the United States of America in the early 1600’s had appeared wholly unsuccessful. Between 1608 and 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 English settlers of Jamestown survived due to starvation, disease, and attacks from the natives (Stahle). Notoriously, there is evidence that the settlers of Jamestown resorted to cannibalism to feed themselves (O’Brien). Even earlierRead MoreThe Religious Convictions Of The Puritans1170 Words   |  5 PagesThe Puritans were a group of people from England who settled the New World (1) called America after the year of 1630. They went to America to be free to practice their religion without being persecuted because their beliefs were opposing the catholic’ one. The difference was that the Puritans tried harder to enforce the Ten Commandments but Americans were influenced by the moral, ethical, and religious convictions of the Puritans. The Puritans’ life was very hard in England so that they focused theRead MoreWinthrop s First Governor Of The Massachusetts Bay Colony1142 Words   |  5 PagesWinthrop was a well educated man who became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. John Winthrop was a visionary utopian who saw fault in the English religious society. Winthrop called England, â€Å"Morally corrupt and over burdened with people,† however; Winthrop sought new land for his children and Christian followers. In 1630 John Winthrop began his â€Å"exodus with 900 migrants in search of a new land†. Winthrop envisioned a new colony that would reform the Christian society that he knewRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between The Religious Messages Essay1481 Words   |  6 PagesRELIGIOUS MESSAGES​1 Contrast the Religious Messages Name Institution Professor Course Date Contrast the Religious Messages Introduction The two early American literature writers Jonathan Edwards and the other John Winthrop were writers in the issue of principles in Christianity but had very little factors those were common between them. The difference between them might have been brought about by the issue of time and region in which the two wrote their sermons.Read MoreJohn Winthrop And James Madison1197 Words   |  5 PagesFrom the beginning, America has been a safe place for the fostering and cultivating of new thoughts and ideologies, but not without repercussion. This is evident in the life of both John Winthrop and James Madison. From early on in their political careers, both leaders faced political opposition. John Winthrop left familiarity in search of religious freedom and the pursuit of a life pleasing to God. James Madison, in creativity, thought of an entirely renovated way to successfully restructure theRead MoreJohn Winthrop And John Adams1284 Words   |  6 PagesJohn Winthrop and John Adams and the ir respective works were heavily influenced by their times. Winthrop was a devout Puritan Christian that was escaping a persecuting king in the early to mid-seventeenth century. As a learned and religious man, he came to be the leader of this puritan sect that was to establish a society unlike any other, free from religious corruption that his fellow people saw in the Church of England, that would be a model community much like the â€Å"Citty upon a Hill† describedRead MorePuritan Beliefs Of The Massachusetts Bay Colony1236 Words   |  5 PagesIn Puritan belief, life was planned according to God, and a society worked to live out that plan. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was a closely integrated group that worked together to fulfill the wishes of a larger community. Puritans religious beliefs produced ideas that God’s will was to lead a community based on peace. God had set high expectations for a happy and trustworthy community. However, if a community did not live up to the expectations, God would destroy the community. Therefore, PuritanRead MoreForced to Choose Between Morals and Society in The Puritan Dilemma by Edmund S. Morgan600 Words   |  3 PagesThe Puritan Dilemma, Edmund S. Morgan writes about the people who were forced to pick between their morals and their societies. Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were banned since they had refused to accept the Puritan rules, and John Winthrop believe he could not continue in a country where the church remained tainted. The Puritan Dilemma indoctrinated the people, claiming we are all sinners other than the puritans. Everyone is sin and Puritans are saintly. Starting with John Winthrop, a manRead MoreBenjamin Franklin And John Winthrop1651 Words   |  7 PagesBenjamin Franklin and John Winthrop, men with different ideals, present the same notion that America should be presented as a â€Å"city upon a hill.† Franklin believed that the American dream should be presented as an ideal where men and women are equal and can both move up in social class on their own, practicing any religion they desired. On the other hand, Winthrop believed that the new world was a religious safe haven only for the Puritans. American Exceptionalism was overall the main focus, guiding

Friday, May 8, 2020

The History of the Golden Gate Bridge Essay - 1420 Words

Stretching across the San Francisco Bay stands the world famous Golden Gate Bridge. The bridge is located in one of nature’s most beautiful settings, spanning the mile-wide bay from Fort Point in San Francisco to the Marin County Shore. Joseph Strauss, specializing in bridge building, was the leader of the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge. The start of construction began on January 5, 1993 and, after four years, was completed on April 27, 1997. The bridge was needed to be built because of the growing population after the California Gold Rush. The bridge was a difficult task for engineers and is now an inspiration. The Golden Gate Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges and is well known around the world. The Golden Gate†¦show more content†¦He was most certainly familiar with the job. In 1919, a study was begun to see if it would be possible to build a bridge across the Golden Gate. Michael O’Shaughnessy was the San Francisco city engineer. He was in charge of the rebuilding of the city after the devastating 1906 earthquake that destroyed much of the city. O’Shaughnessy knew the need for the city to have bridges. Most said it could not be done and others said it could be done but â€Å"it would cost about $100 million to build it† (Barter 23). O’Shaughnessy and Strauss, both wanting the same thing, got together. After the two consulted, they figured the only way to bridge the channel was to use a suspension bridge. Once O’Shaughnessy and Strauss believed they could build the bridge, politics came into the picture. In 1923, the California state legislature passes a bill that allowed the establishment of a Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District. The district’s job was to oversee the project and run the bridge once it was built. Over the next few years, many people spoke up both for and against the building of the bridge. The land on both ends of the bridge was owned by the U.S. military. Before any plans could move forward, the military would have to approve the project and give the Bridge District permission to use War Department land. An army colonel was appointed to hold hearings on the matter and â€Å"for seven months, he listened to bothShow MoreRelatedAn Engineered Wonder of the World800 Words   |  4 PagesEngineered Wonder of the World This bridge needs neither praise, eulogy nor encomium. It speaks for itself. We who have labored long are grateful. What Nature rent asunder long ago, man has joined today. This is a quote from Joseph Strauss, the engineer that designed the Golden Gate Bridge. The Golden Gate Bridge is truly a piece of engineering excellence. It stretches for almost 9,000 feet over the San Francisco Bay, in San Francisco, California. The bridge has faced many problems during the designingRead MoreHow Architects Change The World1638 Words   |  7 Pagesmeaningful architecture is not to parody history, but to articulate it.†- Daniel Libeskind Mankind has built structures since the beginning of time and every structure which has been built throughout history has a story behind it. The reasons for building these structures are many and varied. The main reason for building a structure is out of necessity. Buildings such as the aqueducts of Rome, Windsor Castle of Medieval Europe, and the Golden Gate Bridge, were built out of necessity. AnotherRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed The World Today1411 Words   |  6 Pagesresearch paper i will be talking about bridges and their importance to the world today. I will also go into detail on how bridges were in the past and how the first bridges were made by nature. I will compare bridges from the past to how technology has changed the way bridges are built today in the modern era. The more we advance in technology the more ca-pabilities we have too make bridges that support so much more weight. As the improvements are made bridges are just becoming safer and more reliables Read More The Golden Gate Bridge Essay3030 Words   |  13 PagesThe Golden Gate Bridge Since the dawn of time, man has had an inherent need to get to the other side. Rivers, canyons, and impassable trails have always hindered the migration of man, leaving him the choice to continue no further, or to â€Å"build a bridge and get over it.† The earliest bridges were made of simple materials such as stone, or even a fallen log. Regardless of the material, natural bridges allowed man to explore the â€Å"other side.† However, man has never been satisfied withRead MoreDriving Across The Golden Gate Bridge972 Words   |  4 Pages Driving across the golden gate bridge is a sight to see. Well it is a site o see if you can see through the layers of thick fog and if your car sat up high enough you could see out over the bridge. The air was not freezing, but there was a chill in the breeze that gave me goose bumps. Driving down crooked roads, and eating the sourdough bread instead of the soup inside it are special memories. It was a few days in San Francisco last summer that gave me a love for somewhere other than home. BeingRead MoreAnsel Adams : The Most Important Landscape Photographer Of The Twentieth Century1779 Words   |  8 Pagesright by his home in San Francisco. Try imagining the Golden Gate without the bridge. This sight hasn’t been seen for over 80 years. â€Å"The Golden Gate Bridge is a beauty, a star, a symbol† (Nolte, Envision Golden Gate without the Bridge). It is hard to imagine the Golden Gate without the bridge. It has become a San Francisco icon. One person who saw the Golden Gate before the bridge is Ansel Adams. Adams’ photograph, The Golden Gate before the Bridge, was taken one winter day in 1932. â€Å"One beautifulRead MoreThe Great Alcatraz Escape, 1962836 Words   |  3 Pages‘so-called’ inescapable, maximum security prison that we know as Alcatraz. There are many speculations related to whether they made it out alive or not. Either way, Frank Lee Morris, Clarence Anglin, and John Anglin accomplished an amazing feat by making history with the most well thought out plan. There is a lot of evidence that proves, without a doubt, that these men made it out alive, and that they did. Alcatraz is located in the middle of the San Francisco bay. It officially became a prison in 1934 andRead MoreSan Francisco Social Inequality Essay1599 Words   |  7 Pages Social Inequality of the Golden City The Golden Gate Bridge takes a curious traveler across the San Francisco Bay area into a marvelous journey towards a technologically innovative city of San Francisco. The city of San Francisco has forever been a national symbol of coveted opportunity, cultural disapprobation, technological blossoming – and, frankly, economic inequality. In the past, countless attempts were made by multiple scholars to identify the sources of San Francisco’s social inequalityRead MoreParadise Lost Analysis1518 Words   |  7 Pagesduring the Commonwealth period which was from 1649-60 (Pears 80). This also means that Paradise Lost was released a year after the Great Fire of London occurred. The Great Fire of London blazed from September 2-5, was the worst fire in London’s history. It destroyed a large part of the City of London, including churches such as St. Paul’s Cathedral (â€Å"Great Fire of London†, 2014). Milton was likely very familiar with this fire and had an idea of what happened due to the fire thanks to accounts ofRead MoreAn Enclosed Area Surrounded By Buildings1187 Words   |  5 Pagesvarious purposes. Through centuries of evolvement and development, courtyard has flourished from different cultures and thrived in various forms. One may wonder, when and where did courtyard emerge? How and why have it made its mark on architectural history? Dating back to ca. 6000 BC, when courtyard made its first appearance in Jordan Valley, between Israel and the West Bank, courts have become widely used in Islamic regions especially in the mosques. Fifty centuries later, at a distant location on

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Brief Overview of the Interralatedness of the Three Gospels Free Essays

string(28) " in constructing their own\." Introduction: Coming to Terms with the Problem Most everyone who reads the Synoptic Gospels observes similarities that exist among them; their passages are very similar in content and structure which would make one think the authors borrowed material from each other or perhaps at all the same sources. However they are equally different in content and structure. This brings about the problems with the Synoptic Gospels commonly called the â€Å"Synoptic Problem. We will write a custom essay sample on A Brief Overview of the Interralatedness of the Three Gospels or any similar topic only for you Order Now † Looking for a solution that is reasonable and defensible, we will look at biblical history, early church history, and the content of the Gospels themselves. As I answer these questions, and bring an overview to the synoptic problem, and provide a defense of the Fourfold-Gospel Hypothesis as the most reasonable and dependable solution to the problem. A General Description of Synoptic Relationships Synoptic Gospels fall into three separate categories: wording (vocabulary), order (structure), and parenthetical material. Relationships and Content Consider the following verse from the passage in Matthew 19 about the children coming to Jesus. Matthew 19:14 Let the children come to me, and do not hinder them; for to such belongs the Mark 10:14 the children come to me, do not hinder them; for such belongs the Luke 18:16 Let the children come to me, and do not hinder them; for to such belongs the Matthew 19:14 kingdom of heaven. † Mark 10:15 kingdom of God. Truly I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom Luke 18:17 kingdom of God. Truly I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom Matthew 19:15 And he? Mark 10:16 of God like a child shall not enter it.† And he took them in his arms and Luke 18:17 of God like a child shall not enter it. † Following Swanson’s method of underlining the similarities, one can see there are definite similarities between the Gospels. There are however differences, the italicized words shown in Mark and Luke show the difference in formatting. The parenthetical materials in the Synoptic Gospels writers create the relationship in the content. Stein states that â€Å"it is highly unlikely that two or three writers would by coincidence insert into their  accounts exactly the same editorial comment at exactly the same place†. The Gospels themselves show the phenomenon of similarity and divergence within the structure. Much of the history and teaching of the Synoptic Gospels is contained in pericopac (literary units comprised of one argument or thought) and these pericopae often appear in the same order in all three Gospels, and yet there are obvious differences. Carson and Moo explain this problem well: All three Synoptic Gospels roughly follow the same order of events, even when there is no clear chronological or historical reason to do so. Each evangelist, however, omits material found in the other two, each contains unique incidents, and some of the events that are found in one or both of the others are put in a different order. The Investigative History of Synoptic Relationships The history of the investigation into the relationship between the Synoptic Gospels is divided into two great epochs: the early Church in the modern church era. The Early Church According to Dugan in his notes a History of Synoptic Problem, many are taken accounts to writing of the life of Jesus of Nazareth including Luke in Luke 1:1-4. Tatian (c. 110-172) put the four Gospels together in his famous book Diatessaron. Tatian worked to fit the four Gospels into one bound book. Ammonius in the third century took Matthews Gospel and broken it paragraphs. He also took the other three Gospels and rearranged their content. Augustine (AD 354-430) produced works called On the Harmony of the Evangelist. Augustine’s work was typical of many harmonies of Gospels purchased early years of the church. Modern synopsis was produced in 1776 by J. J. Griesbach. The Modern Church No attempts were made to parallel the Gospels except for Ammonius until the eighteenth century. The archetype of the modern-day synopsis is Griesbach. From the eighteenth century there’s been an explosion of study and investigation into how the Synoptic Gospels relate to each other. Many criticisms have reason over the Synoptic Gospels from oral traditions to reaction criticism. Proposed Solutions for the Synoptic Problem Forming a hypothesis around the first three Gospels; while looking at the exact agreement within them and yet the wide divergence of what is written in them. There are four principle explanations of the Synoptic Problem. Common Dependence on One Original Source The German critic Gotthold Lessing proposed a solution to the synoptic problem using type of proto-Gospel that has since been lost as a common source for the Gospel writers. This source is referred to as â€Å"Ur-gospel† and it seemed to have been written in Arabic or Hebrew. Lessing understood Luke’s prologue to be a narrative. J. G. Eichhorn and others took the Ur-gospel and modified it to include some possibly â€Å"lost Gospels as the sources for the synoptic Gospels† Common Dependence on Oral Sources  J. G. Herder in 1797, proposed his hypothesis stating the oral summaries of the life of Christ. Gundry believes that the Ur-gospel theory lacks credibility with the relationship between the Gospels. Gundry explains: †¦ Most modern scholars doubt that transmission by word-of-mouth could have retained so many and such minute verbal resemblances as exist among the synoptics, especially in the narrative, which is not so likely to have been memorized verbatim as possibly the words of Jesus were memorized. Common Dependence on Gradually Developing Written Fragments  F. Schleiermacher originally suggested this theory in 1817, suggested that the church began to collect fragmented writings from the apostles. These fragmented writings became the source of material for the Synoptic Gospels. This cannot be true though. There is more evidence now than ever that there was simply sharing of material between the synoptic writers. Interdependent This group of proposed solutions assumes that â€Å"two of the evangelists used one or more of the other Gospels in constructing their own. You read "A Brief Overview of the Interralatedness of the Three Gospels" in category "Papers"† There were other material that could have been used during this period of time; however the apostles writing at the same time borrowed text from each other to write their own Gospels. The third hypothesis worth mentioning is the Augustine proposal. The Augustine Proposal The Augustine proposal says the Gospels were put into the Canon according to their composition. Some proposal says that Matthew was written first, then Mark, Luke, then John. Augustine is the first theologian from the west to make the connection between Mark and Matthew’s Gospel, and assuming that Luke borrowed documents from both to write his Gospel. Augustine’s theory of interdependent was the predominant theory until the eighteenth century when several other proposals began to surface. The Two-Gospel and Two-Source hypothesis are the most widely accepted theories today. The Two-Gospel (Griesbach) Theory In 1789 J. J. Griesbach published a paper in which he proposed the order of synoptic compositions of Matthew, Luke, and Mark each writer’s previous writers work. Griesbach says Matthew wrote his gospel first, Luke used Matthews Gospel to write his, and Mark used both Matthew and Luke’s Gospel to write his Gospel. Orchard has taken Griesbachs’ theory to a new level. Orchard has done research in the area of the Two-Gospel Theory and believes that Marks Gospel is a composition of Matthew and Luke’s Gospel. The Two-Source Theory This is by far the most widely accepted solution to the Synoptic Problem. Their primary sources of Synoptic Gospels. Markan believes that Mark’s Gospel was written before Matthew and Luke, and â€Å"Q† a saying source. Mark parallels Matthew 97. 2% of the time, while Luke parallels Matthews’s gospel 88. 4% of the time. Mark awkwardly wrote suggesting that it was the first gospel written and that my fuse was written later, using Mark’s primary source, correcting the difficulties with the language. It would be easy later on in expressions that might be misunderstood. With Matthew and Luke having so many verbal language agreements with Mark it would indicate that Mark was written first and they at least collaborated or used the same material when writing the Gospels. The â€Å"Q† becomes a factor when looking at Markans assumption that Matthew and Luke used Marks Gospel yet writing independent of each other. The two source theory is by far the most widely accepted explanation of the Synoptic Problem. With this theory Matthew and Luke used Marks Gospel as their narrative source and Q for their material. However there appears to be a better explanation of the synoptic problem. The Fourfold -Gospel Hypothesis takes in both the initial evidence the external evidence. The Fourfold -Gospel hypothesis is the most dependable and reasonable solution to the synoptic problem. The fourfold-Gospel Hypothesis: A Most Reasonable and Defensible Solution Scott McKnight makes and observation surrounding the Synoptic Problem. Literary levels connect Matthew Mark and Luke and they are highly mutually dependent on each other. Mark can be considered the middle factor. Benard Orchard gives a logical conclusion to the Synoptic Problem. Orchard states: â€Å"†¦ The historical and patristic evidence, the internal critical evidence for mutual literacy dependence, and the â€Å"scenario† necessary to show how the tendency between the first and the second lines of the argument can be satisfactorily resolved.† With the Fourfold-Gospel Hypothesis, Matthew Rocha particularly Jewish church in acts 1-12, Luke wrote second to provide the gospel to a Hellenistic church that was in a missionary expansion with Paul in acts 13-28, while Mark was last Gospel written and records Peter preaching in Rome. External Historic and Patristic Evidence With fourteen different patristic witnesses on Blacks list that support the theory that Mark wrote last and used Matthew and Luke. According to the Patristic witnesses Matthew wrote second and John wrote last. Paul helped Luke write his Gospel either second or third. According to historic evidence in the early church, Matthew wrote first, second, and Mark). Lea and Black disagree with Markan saying: â€Å"however popular Markan priority may be today, it seems to fly in the face of the statements of the earliest church fathers, who are almost unanimous in asserting that Matthew predated both Mark and Luke. † Internal Evidence Markan states Mark was written first due to the shortness of the Gospel. As Matthew and Luke wrote their Gospels more accurate information was available then when Mark wrote his Gospel. Mark writes about five periods of Christ’s ministry. Mark’s writing style is also simple and primitive compared with Matthew and Luke. Mark writes much of Peter’s preaching. â€Å"All that internal literacy criticism can do is to show that an existing text could have originated in more than one way. † When looking for reasonable and dependable solutions one must choose â€Å"the source theory that best reflects the actual historical circumstances† for this solution of the Synoptic Problem. When looking historically and biblically as a scenario to Mark’s writing the Fourfold- Gospel Hypothesis represents Mark’s writing well. The Scenario of Mark’s Writing In Jerusalem and Palestine during the final stages of the formation of the early church there was almost exclusive focus on preaching of the Gospels to the Jews. Matthew predicts Jesus is the fulfillment of the Jewish prophecy. A need arose as the gospel progressed from Palestine to the Jews of Diaspora and then to the Gentiles. The need for a universal Christ and less Jewish Christ and a more Hellenistic Gospel. This would be Luke’s account it is â€Å"directed toward those Hellenistic congregations founded by the apostle Paul on his missionary journeys. † Mark binds Matthew and Luke’s Gospels together. Black explains Mark’s gospel: â€Å"because secondary chapter, Luke needed the approval of an eyewitness apostle proper accreditation in the church†¦ Peter himself was apostolic eyewitness they provided the accreditation for the gospel of Luke by personally comparing it with the Gospel of Matthew as he gave his own oral version of the stories common to both, at which he himself had been present in person.† Peter uses both Luke and Matthew’s Gospels to preach from, giving accreditation to both Gospels. Paul had been using Luke and Matthews’s gospel and with Peter using them and accepting them it gave a stamp of approval for Paul so no one could accuse Paul of wrong-doing. Looking at the Synoptic Problem the Fourfold- Gospel Hypothesis is a dependable solution because it takes into account the biblical writing the Gospels, evidence in the writing of the early church fathers, the internal evidence of the Gospels. All three Gospels speak to their own time period. Conclusion This brief overview of the Synoptic Problem has defined the problem by definition. The source relates to the Synoptic Gospels can be seen as a problem. It is difficult to determine the true source of the Synoptic Gospels. They have been part of the canon and church history for centuries. The Synoptic Gospels are part of the big picture, it is divinely inspired, and the inerrant Word of God. The historical evidence would lead one to believe the Fourfold- Gospel Hypothesis is the most reasonable way to make the picture fit. How to cite A Brief Overview of the Interralatedness of the Three Gospels, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

North Face Inc Essay Example

North Face Inc Essay Discuss the risks to an audit should the client become aware of the materiality thresholds used on audit engagements by the auditing firm. Auditors cannot insist that their clients accept all proposed audit adjustments even those that have an â€Å"immaterial† effect on the given set of financial statements, because most clients would refuse to propose audit adjustments. 1. Discuss the general principles or guidelines that dictate when companies are entitled to record revenue and how the $7. 8 million barter transaction and the two consignment sales discussed in the case may have violated these principles. Revenues and gains are realized when products (goods or services), merchandise, or other assets are exchanged for cash or claims to cash revenues are considered to have been earned when the entity has substantially accomplished what it must do to be entitled to the benefits represented by the revenues. Generally, barter transactions in which a company receives trade credits in exchange for merchandise should be recorded at the fair value of the merchandises given up since the ultimate reliability or economic value of the trade credits is typically not determinable at the time of the exchange. So, even though the exchange element of the revenue recognition principle is satisfied by such a transaction, the realized element is not necessarily satisfied, meaning that any profit on the transaction should be deferred. In the case at hand, there was clearly some question as to the fair value of the excess merchandise that was being sold to the barter company. A conservative treatment of the transaction might have dictated that a loss or write-down of the merchandise was actually the most appropriate accounting treatment for the transaction. . Explain the principle objectives of auditor’s work papers and how these objectives were undermined by Deloitte’s decision to alter North Face’s 1997 work papers. Audit documentation serves mainly to: a. Provide the principal support for the basis of opinion of audit paper work , including the representation regarding observance of the standards of fieldwork, which is implicit in the reference to generally accepted audit ing standards. b. Aid the auditor in the conduct and supervision of the audit. We will write a custom essay sample on North Face Inc specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on North Face Inc specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on North Face Inc specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Both of these objectives were undercut by the decision of the Deloitte auditors to alter North Face’s 1997 audit workpapers. First, by modifying the 1997 workpapers and not documenting the given revisions in those workpapers, the Deloitte auditors destroyed audit evidence, evidence that demonstrated that the 1997 audit team had properly investigated the authoritative literature relevant to barter transactions and proposed an audit adjustment consistent with the requirements of that literature. Second, the alteration of the 1997 workpapers affected the decisions made on the 1998 audit. That is, the auditors during the 1998 audit relied on the apparent decisions made during the 1997 audit and thus reached an improper decision on the accounting treatment that would be appropriate for the barter transaction recorded by North Face in January 1998. North Face’s management teams were criticized for strategic blunders that they made over the course of the company’s history. Do auditors have a responsibility to assess the quality of the key decisions made by client executives? Defend your answer. Clearly, major strategic blunders by client management can create an environment in which client executives and their key subordinates have a strong incentive to distort their entity’s accounting records and financial statements. More generally, the overall quality of top management’s decisions affects the â€Å"inherent risk† present during a given audit References: http://www. termpapersmonthly. com

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Four-hand vs. Two-hand Pianos Compositions

Four-hand vs. Two-hand Pianos Compositions Free Online Research Papers Chamber Music LiteratureTerm Paper: Piano Ensembles Pianos are usually used as a solo instrument or accompanying other instruments. However, composers have written numerous compositions for two or more pianos in addition to four-hand piano compositions. In addition, a few composers have written some substantial works about pianos collaborating with other instruments. Representative compositions include: Mozart’s two-piano and three-piano concertos, Bartok’s Concerto for Two Pianos, Percussion and Orchestra and the sonata for two pianos and percussion. I would like to specifically focus on the differences between the four-hand piano and the two pianos compositions. When two pianists sit on a bench and share one keyboard, we call it piano-four-hand (piano duettists). When two pianists sit on different benches and perform on two different grand pianos, we call them â€Å"duo pianists†. When numerous pianos are used together to perform by different pianists, we call them â€Å"piano ensembles†. For example: the Ten-Piano Ensemble. I think that the compositions for the four hands have more limitations to develop both for the performers and composers. Because two pianists are sharing one keyboard, one is limit ed to play on either the high register or the low register of the piano. For the part written for the high register of the piano, we call it â€Å"Primo†. â€Å"Secondo† is the part written for the lower register of the piano. The pianist playing the primo part is usually in charge of the main melodies and the secondo part is usually in charge of the basic bass-line harmonies to give the listeners a clear sense of the harmonies. Physically, it is more difficult to play four-hand than playing the two pianos in my opinion. First of all, two pianists need to sit closely although not necessarily on the same bench. Secondly, they need to share one keyboard which is usually designed for just one pianist. As a result, it is easy for their hands and bodies to be touched by the other pianist and it easily causes discomforts. Compositions for two pianos offer more opportunities for exploring the quality of the pianos and the two pianists share the responsibilities equally. Because the pianists do not share one keyboard, there is no register limitation for the composers for each pianist. It allows them to be able to write more virtuosic passages because of the register. Thus, the textures are more complex and the sounds are fuller and have much variety. The difficulties for the composers are how to write balanced parts for each pianist. Compared to four-hands, piano duos are also visually more effective. The pianists are facing one to each other and the pianos are placed across each other. Performers can only see the other through their eyes. It will be more difficult to collaborate the other in this way. From the Baroque period, there have been many composers writing fantastic works for numerous pianos. Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Poulenc, Chopin, Schumann, Brahms, Debussy, and Ravel all wrote duos or concertos for two (or more) keyboards and orchestra or composed duo piano arrangements of other works. In the twenty centuries, the representative composers are Saint-Saà «ns, Debussy, Rachmaninoff, Stravinsky, and Milhaud.Playing four-hand or two pianos requires high level of collaboration and similarities in personalities and musical ideas; as a result, four-hand or two pianos are usually successfully performed by sisters, brothers, close friends and lovers. Below are a few famous Two-piano duos: Robert Gaby Casadesus (husband, and wife); Argerich with friends: Stephen Kovacevich, and Nelson Freire; Sisters: the Pekinel sisters.The two main comp ositions I am going to focus on and make comparison are Mozart’s Variations in G major for four hand, k. 501 and Mozart’s Sonata in D Major for Two Pianos, k. 448. Mozart’s theme and variations in G major is a small-scale composition which contains only one theme, five variations and one fugue. This piece is said to originally written for two pianos. Generally speaking, the primo part takes charge throughout the whole composition. In the theme, First Variation, Second Variation, Third Variations, the primo part is in charge of the main melodies and the secondo part is basically accompanying the primo part. However, in the Fourth, Fifth Variation and the Fugue, the primo and secondo parts are playing more equal roles. The Fourth Variation and the fugue are the only parts in the composition that are in minor and they portrait a contrast mood than the rest. The Fifth variation is full of virtuosic passages and is humorous and witty. The musical ideas and structure of this composition expand gradually as the piece goes on. It reaches the highlight in the fugue . Mozart’s D major sonata was written in 1781 for a performance by Mozart and J. v. Auernhammer. It is a predominantly antiphonal type of writing for two pianos. The atmosphere is full of energy and spirits. Compared to the theme and variations, k. 501, it has more substantial sonority. There are also more contrast thematic ideas in movements. Unlike the theme and variations which the primo part basically takes the charge, in this sonata, each piano plays more equal roles. Because there is no register limitation, more virtuosic passages are written in both pianos: for example: the scales and arpeggios are all over the place. For me, it sounds even like a Mozart piano concerto arranged for two pianos, except there is no cadenza in the first or third movement. The first movement is in a grand sonata form. The beginning of it is like an orchestra tutti. It is full of majesty and brilliance. The second piano starts the second theme which displays a different character-cute and humo rous. The second movement, at first, the second piano is just playing the role of accompanying the first piano. Latter, the first and second pianos have sweet dialogues. The third movement is full of wit and humor. The first piano and second piano collaborate and alternate to sing out the main melodies. Research Papers on Four-hand vs. Two-hand Pianos CompositionsHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionThe Hockey GameWhere Wild and West MeetQuebec and CanadaBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfDefinition of Export QuotasHip-Hop is ArtMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductOpen Architechture a white paperThe Project Managment Office System

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

ESL Beginning Opposites Lesson Plan

ESL Beginning Opposites Lesson Plan Learning new vocabulary often requires hooks - memory devices that help students remember the words they have learned. Here is a quick, traditional and effective exercise focusing on pairing opposites. The opposites have been divided into beginner, intermediate and advanced level lessons. The exercise can be done as a matching exercise, or, for a greater challenge, students can be asked to come up with the opposites themselves. Both types of exercises are included in the resource section of this lesson. Aim: Improving vocabulary through the use of opposites Activity: Matching opposites Level: Beginner Outline: Divide students into small groups and distribute the opposites worksheet. Ask students to either match the opposites (exercise 1) or write the opposites (exercise 2). If you have more time, you can ask students to first match the opposites and then write out the opposites individually. Alternatively, you could give exercise as follow-up homework. Correct in class. Expand the exercise by asking students to provide synonyms. Exercise 1 - Match the Opposites boyspeakoldrightfarfootsisterwifeblackcoolbuycleansmallwomanbegindrinkfullfatstand upfathershorthardcoldlight big, largebrotherdark, heavydirtyeatemptyendgirlhead, handhothusbandleft, wronglistenlong, tallmanmothernear, closenew, youngsellsit downsoft, easythinwarmwhite Exercise 2 - Fill in the Opposites boyspeakoldrightfarfootsisterwifeblackcoolbuycleansmallwomanbegindrinkfullfatstand upfathershorthardcoldlight Intermediate Level Opposites Advanced Level Opposites Back to lessons resource page

Saturday, February 15, 2020

American Dietary Guidelines Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

American Dietary Guidelines - Assignment Example The assignment "American Dietary Guidelines" discusses the dietary guidelines for Americans. With an exponentially increasing financial budget on managing diet-oriented chronic diseases, the American dietary guidelines play a crucial role in ensuring Americans focus on promoting health and minimization of disease. Weight management involves regulation of factors contributing to obesity and avoiding it. There are emphasize consumption low sodium and solid fats, sugars, and cholesterol, as well as alcohol as these, contribute to poor diet-related chronic diseases. The guidelines recommend the increase of foods with adequate nutrients, and that prevent diseases like whole grains, low-fat milk and fat-free milk products like lean meat eggs, peas, oils, and unsalted nuts and seeds. With the knowledge of what to eat, what not to eat, and how to balance one’s weight through calories, the guidelines provide information on how to define a healthy eating pattern in order to minimize the ir nutrient requirements.The major recommendations are for Americans to ensure they adhere to consuming balanced calorie intake while incorporating physical activity as a way of managing weight. Another recommendation is on consumption of increased amounts of some nutrients including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat, and fat-free products. Americans are urged to consume food that constitutes low amounts of saturated fats, sodium like salt, added sugars, cholesterol, trans fats, and refined grains.